In addition to the tried-and-true oak staple, I've been known to venture into less well-charted territory from time to time, using cedar, applewood, cherrywood, walnut, and other woods. Of course, they don't usually sell toasted cherrywood staves at the local homebrew shop, so you'll have to make your own.
I was able to source some 1"x12" un-treated cherry staves from a local cabinet maker. Wherever you get your wood, make sure it's untreated, pesticide free wood, as the stuff sold at Home Depot may not be food safe.
After that, you will want to toast it to bring out it's flavor characteristics. I use my kitchen oven, but a butane torch or open fire will work just as well provided you are careful. For this particular piece, I was looking for a medium toast so I put it in a 300°F oven on the center rack for approximately 35 minutes.
For reference, here is an un-toasted stave next to a freshly toasted one:
I hope this information proves useful. If you are doing any oaked beers soon, let me know in the comments.